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Stats without Tears
Sources Used

Updated 2 Sept 2023 (What’s New?)
Copyright © 2014–2024 by Stan Brown,

Summary: Here are full citations for all the books, articles, and Web pages that I refer to in the textbook. (I’m following the format suggested by chapters 15 and 16 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 13th Edition.)

Aldrich, John. 2012.
Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
American Social History Project of CUNY and Center for History and New Media of George Mason University. n.d.
Landon in a Landslide: The Poll That Changed Polling. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
AVMA, American Veterinary Medical Association. 2014.
US Pet Ownership Statistics. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 from
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2013.
Statistical Language—Types of Errors. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Benson, Herbert, et al. 2005.
Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer (STEP) in Cardiac Bypass Patients — A Multi-Center Randomized Trial of Uncertainty and Certainty of Receiving Intercessory Prayer. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​060407STEP_paper.pdf (PDF)
Benson, Herbert, et al. 2006.
Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer (STEP) in cardiac bypass patients: A multicenter randomized trial of uncertainty and certainty of receiving intercessory prayer [abstract]. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Blood Types. 2009.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Bock, Dave. n.d.
Is That an Assumption or a Condition? Retrieved 2021-11-19 from
Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr., et al. 1990.
Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from (PDF)
Bradford Hill, Sir Austin. 1965.
"The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?" Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58 (1965): 295–300. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Brown, Stan. 2018.
How to Convert Units of Measurement. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Bulmer, M. G. 1979.
Principles of Statistics. Dover.
CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014.
Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​basic_info/screening/guidelines.htm
Census Bureau, United States. 2014a.
Educational Attainment: CPS Historical Time Series Tables. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​education/data/cps/historical/index.html
Census Bureau, United States. 2014b.
New York Quick Facts. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​36000.html
Classic Polling Surprises. 2004.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​new_worksheet/0,,EXP545_NAV2-76_SWK543,00.shtml
Clustering Illusion. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Correlation and Dependence. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Dabes, Joe, and Carol Janik. 1999.
Statistics Manual. Tompkins Cortland Community College.
Dallal, Gerald E. 2002.
Is Statistics Hard? Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
DeVeaux, Richard D., Paul F. Velleman, and David E. Bock. 2009.
Intro Stats. 3d ed. Pearson Addison Wesley.
DiscovertheOdds .com. 2014.
What Are the Odds Of Being Struck By Lightning? Retrieved 16 Nov 2017 from
Dutton, Sarah, et al. 2013.
9 in 10 Back Universal Gun Background Checks. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Ellenberg, Jordan. 2014.
How Not to Be Wrong:The Power of Mathematical Thinking. The Penguin Press.
Empirical Relation between Mean, Median, and Mode. n.d.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Experian plc. 2012.
Number of Older Vehicles on the Road in the United States Increased by More than 17 Million Since 2009. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 from
(Many thanks to TC3 librarian Barbara Kobritz for finding the original link for me.)
Experimental Design in Statistics. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Fairleigh Dickinson University. 2011.
Some News Leaves People Knowing Less. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from (PDF)
Finite and Infinite Population. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Freedman, David, Robert Pisani, and Roger Purves. 2007.
Statistics. 4th ed. Norton.
Freshman Twenty. 2004.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Gigerenzer, Gerd. 2002.
Calculated Risks. Simon & Schuster.
Gilovich, Thomas, Robert Vallone, and Amos Tversky. 1985.
“The Hot Hand in Basketball: On the Misperception of Random Sequences”. Cognitive Psychology 17(1985): 295–314. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​gilovich%20vallone%20tversky.pdf (PDF)
Goleman, Daniel. 1986.
Major Personality Study Finds That Traits Are Mostly Inherited. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Gosset, William Sealy (“Student”). 1908.
The Probable Error of a Mean. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from (PDF)
Illusory Superiority: “Driving Ability”. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Introduction to Polling. n.d.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​ptn1.htm#_ftn1
Ioannidis, John P. A. 2005.
Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Johnson, Robert, and Patricia Kuby. 2003.
Just the Essentials of Elementary Statistics. 3d ed. Brooks/Cole.
Johnson, Robert, and Patricia Kuby. 2004.
Elementary Statistics. 9th ed. Thomson.
Keogh, Daniel [TheProfessorFunk]. 2011.
The Strange Powers of the Placebo Effect. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from (video)
Kuulasmaa, Kari, Hans-Werner Hense, and Hanna Tolonen. 1998.
Quality Assessment of Data on Blood Pressure in the WHO MONICA Project — Table 8: Mean and standard deviation of blood pressure. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Kuzma, Jan W., and Stephen E. Bohnenblust. 2005.
Basic Statistics for the Health Sciences. 5th ed. McGraw Hill.
Lane, David M. 2010.
Percentiles. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Lane, David M. 2013.
HyperStat Online — Chapter 9: Logic of Hypothesis Testing. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Mackowiak, Philip A., Steven S. Wasserman, and Myron M. Levine. 1992.
A Critical Appraisal of 98.6°F, the Upper Limit of the Normal Body Temperature, and Other Legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich [abstract]. Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from
The Math Forum @ Drexel. 2002.
Defining Quartiles. Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from​60969.html
The Math Forum @ Drexel. 2003.
Difference of Two Proportions in Statistics. Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from​68356.html
Mathematical Models. n.d.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Matthews, Robert. 2017.
Chancing It: The Laws of Chance and How They Can Work for You. CPI Group (UK) Ltd.
Mendelian Inheritance. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Michailides, George. n.d.a.
Jury Selection. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Michailides, George. n.d.b.
Swain vs Alabama. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Middleton, Michael R. n.d.
Better Histograms Using Excel. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from (PDF)
Misleading Graph: “Improper Scaling”. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Moore, David. 2003.
Re: P Value for Kids? Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Moulton, Samuel T. n.d.
Probable Error of a Mean, The (“Student”) [Biometrika, 6, 1-25]. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​probable_error_mean.pdf (PDF)
NHTSA, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, US Department of Transportation. 2008.
Average Fuel Economy Standards: Passenger Cars and Light Trucks: Model Years 2011–2015. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from (PDF)
NICB, National Insurance Crime Bureau. 2013.
NICB’s Hot Wheels: Popular 10 Most Stolen Vehicles List Gets a Makeover. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
O’Halloran, Sharyn. n.d.
Statistics and Quantitative Analysis U4320: Lecture 11 : Path Diagrams. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from (PowerPoint)
Parker-Pope, Tara. 2007.
How Scared Should We Be? Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
(The table is somewhat confusing, giving lifetime risk of 1 in 60,453, but footnotes explain that is the 2003 figure for shark attacks, not fatal attacks, divided by 77.6. Multiplying back 77.6×60,453 gives a 2003 probability of shark attack of about 1 in 4,691,000.)
Paulos, John Allen. 2004.
A Mathematician Plays the Stock Market. Basic Books.
Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation. 2001.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​common/stat/cstats03.mhtml
See “Learning Check #18” at the bottom.
Pew Research Center. 2013a.
Half of Parents with Young Children Read to Them Every Day. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Pew Research Center. 2013b.
Obama Job Approval Holds Steady, Economic Views Improve. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Pew Research Center. 2013c.
US Image Rebounds in Mexico. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Pew Research Center. 2013d.
A Third of Americans Say They Like Doing Their Income Taxes. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 from
Pew Research Center. 2013e.
Tea Party’s Image Turns More Negative. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 from
Physicians’ Health Study. 2009.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Ramsay, Clay, Steven Kull, Evan Lewis, and Stefan Subias. 2010.
Misinformation and the 2010 Election: A Study of the US Electorate. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​dec10/Misinformation_Dec10_rpt.pdf (PDF)
Roets, Arne, Barry Schwartz, and Yanjun Guan. 2012.
The Tyranny of Choice: A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Maximizing-Satisficing Effects on Well-Being. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Rosenbaum, Mike. n.d.a.
100 Meter Men’s Olympic Medalists. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
100 Meter Women’s Olympic Medalists. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​sprintsandrelays/qt/olym100women.htm
Ryan, Thomas A., Jr., and Brian L. Joiner. 1976.
Normal Probability Plots and Test for Normality. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​Shared_Resources/Documents/Articles/normal_probability_plots.pdf (PDF)
Scarne, John. 1965.
Scarne on Cards. Rev., augmented ed. Signet (New American Library).
Schilling, Mark F., Ann E. Watkins, and William Watkins. 2002.
“Is Human Height Bimodal?” The American Statistician, August 2002 (56:3) Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​bio751/papers/bimodalHeight.pdf
Schmitz, Matt. 2013.
Honda Accord, Civic Remain Top Targets for Thieves. Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from
Selection Bias. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Significant Figures/Digits. 2014.
Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from​select/dm_sig_digits.html
Simon, Steve. 1999a.
Degrees of Freedom. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Simon, Steve. 1999b.
R-squared. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Simon, Steve. 2000a.
Alternating Treatments. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Simon, Steve. 2000b.
Causation. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Simon, Steve. 2000c.
Number Needed to Treat. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Simon, Steve. 2000d.
Outliers. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Simon, Steve. 2001.
Web Polls. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Simon, Steve. 2004.
Degrees of Freedom, Part 2. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Simon, Steve. 2010.
Confidence Interval with Zero Events. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Siu, Jason. 2013.
Honda Accord, Civic Most Stolen Vehicles in 2012. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Social Security Administration, US. 2010.
Actuarial Life Table: Periodic Life Table, 2010. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from (Select 2010 in the box and click Go.)
Specter, Michael. 2009.
Denialism: How Irrational Thinking Hinders Scientific Progress, Harms the Planet, and Threatens Our Lives. Penguin Press.
Steering Committee of the Physicians’ Health Study Research Group. 1989.
Final Report on the Aspirin Component of the Ongoing Physicians’ Health Study. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Sterne, Jonathan A. C., and George Davey Smith. 2001.
“Sifting the Evidence — What’s Wrong with Significance Tests?” British Medical Journal 322(7280): 226–231. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Stutzbach Enterprises. 2011.
The Prosecutor’s Fallacy. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Sullivan, Michael. 2011.
Fundamentals of Statistics. 3d ed. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Tierney, John. 1991.
Behind Monty Hall’s Doors: Puzzle, Debate and Answer? Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Triola, Mario. 2011.
Elementary Statistics Using the TI-83/84 Plus Calculator. 3d ed. Addison-Wesley.
Turner, Ronald, et al. 2005.
“An Evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in Experimental Rhinovirus Infections”. New England Journal of Medicine 353(4): 341–348. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
(Suggested by Michael Specter’s Denialism.)
Upton, Graham, and Ian Cook. 2008.
Oxford Dictionary of Statistics. Oxford University Press.
Velleman, Paul. 2005.
Confounding Variables. Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from
Vickers, Andrew. 2010.
What Is a p-Value Anyway? 34 Stories to Help You Actually Understand Statistics. Addison-Wesley.
(My thanks to Erik Westwig for drawing this book to my attention.)
Virmani, Rajeev. 2012.
Confounding and Lurking Variables. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
von Hippel, Paul T. 2005.
Mean, Median, and Skew: Correcting a Textbook Rule. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
Waner, Stefan, and Steven R. Costenoble. 1996.
Calculus Applied to Probability and Statistics. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​RealWorld/cprob/cprob4.html
Welch, B. L. 1938.
The Significance of the Difference between Two Means When the Population Variances Are Unequal. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from (PDF)
What are my chances of being a victim of violent crime? 2010.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from
(The figure for males is 18.4 per thousand, versus 15.8 per thousand for females. Ignoring that there are more females than males in the population, the average figure is (18.4+15.8)/2 = 17.1 per thousand.)
Wheelan, Charles. 2013.
Naked Statistics: Stripping the Dread from the Data. Norton.
Young, Aaron, Humayun J. Chaudhry, Janelle Rhyne, and Michael Dugan. 2011.
A Census of Actively Licensed Physicians in the United States, 2010. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from​FSMBPhysicianCensus.pdf (PDF)

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